Emerging Trends Class 11 Notes
Emerging Trends Class 11 Notes
Emerging trends are the state-of-the-art technologies, which gain popularity and set a new trend among users. Let we discuss some emerging trends that will make a huge impact (in the future) on digital economy and
interaction in digital societies.
1. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE(AI) :
Artificial Intelligence endeavours to simulate the natural intelligence of human beings into machines, thus making them behave intelligently. An intelligent machine is supposed to imitate some of the cognitive functions of humans like learning, decision making and problem solving. The intelligent digital personal assistants like Siri, Google Now, Cortana, Alexa are all powered by AI.
2. MACHINE LEARNING :
Machine Learning is a subsystem of Artificial Intelligence, wherein computers have the ability to learn from data. It comprises algorithms that use data to learn on their own and make predictions. These algorithms are called models. These models are first trained and tested using a training data and testing data, respectively and after that they are used to make predictions about new and unknown data.
3. NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING(NLP) :
NLP deals with the interaction between human and computers using human spoken languages, such as Hindi, English, etc. An NLP system can perform text-to-speech and speech-to-text conversion. Machine translation is a rapidly emerging field where machines are able to translate texts from one language to another. Another emerging application area is automated customer service where a computer software can interact with customers to serve their queries.
4. IMMERSIVE EXPERIENCES :
Immersive experiences allow us to visualise, feel and react by stimulating our senses. It enhances our interaction and involvement, making them more realistic and engaging. Immersive experiences have been used in the field of training, such as driving simulators, flight simulator and so on. Immersive experience can be achieved using virtual reality and augmented reality.
5. VIRTUAL REALITY :
Virtual Reality (VR) is a three-dimensional, computer-generated situation that simulates the real world. The user can interact with and explore that environment by getting immersed in it while interacting with the objects. At present, it is achieved with the help of VR Headsets. Its applications in gaming, military training, medical procedures, entertainment, social science and psychology, engineering and other areas where simulation is needed for a better understanding and learning.
6. AUGMENTED REALITY :
The superimposition of computer generated perceptual information over the existing physical surroundings is
called as Augmented Reality (AR). It adds components of the digital world to the physical world, along with
the sensory requirements, thereby making the environment interactive and digitally manipulable.
NOTE: Unlike Virtual Reality, the Augmented Reality does not create something new, it just alters or augments the perception of the underlying physical world through additional information.
7. ROBOTICS :
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of technology requiring applications of mechanical engineering, electronics, and computer science, among others. Robotics is primarily concerned with the design, fabrication, operation, and application of robots.
8. ROBOT :
A robot is basically a machine capable of carrying out one or more tasks automatically with accuracy and precision. It can follow the instructions given through computer programs. Sensors are one of the prime components of a robot. Robot can be of many types, such as wheeled robots, legged robots, manipulators and humanoids(Robots that resemble humans). Robots are being used in industries, medical science, bionics, scientific research, military, etc. Some examples are:
- NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission is a robotic space mission to study about the planet Mars.
- Sophia is a humanoid that uses AI, visual data processing, facial recognition and also imitates human gestures and facial expressions.
- A drone is an unmanned aircraft which can be remotely controlled. They are being used in many fields, such as journalism, filming and aerial photography, shipping or delivery at short distances, disaster management, search and rescue operations, healthcare etc.
9. BIG DATA :
With technology making an inroad into almost every sphere of our lives. This results in the generation of data sets of enormous volume and complexity called Big Data. Big Data not only represents voluminous data, it also
involves various challenges like integration, storage, analysis, searching, processing and visualisation of such data.
Characteristics of Big Data : Big data exhibits following five characteristics, that distinguish it from traditional data.
a. Volume : The most prominent characteristic of big data is its enormous size.
b. Velocity : Big data has an exponentially higher rate of generation than traditional data sets.
c. Variety : Big Data has variety of data, such as structured, semi-structured and unstructured data. Some examples are text, images, videos, web-pages etc.
d. Veracity : Veracity refers to the trustworthiness of the data because processing incorrect data can give wrong results or mislead the interpretations.
e. Value : Sometimes Big Data have hidden patterns and useful knowledge which can be of high business value. Before making investment in processing big data, we should make a preliminary enquiry to see the potential
of the big data in terms of value discovery.
10. DATA ANALYTICS :
Data analytics is the process of examining data sets in order to draw conclusions about the information they contain, with the aid of specialised systems and software.
11. INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) :
The ‘Internet of Things’ is a network of devices that have an embedded hardware and software to communicate with other devices on the same network. For example, if a microwave oven, an air conditioner, door lock, CCTV camera or other such devices are enabled to connect to the Internet, we can access and remotely control them using our smartphone.
12. WEB OF THINGS (WoT) :
Web of Things (WoT) allows use of web services to connect anything in the physical world, besides human identities on web. It will pave way for creating smart homes, smart offices, smart cities and so on.
13. SENSORS :
A smart sensor is a device that takes input from the physical environment and uses built-in computing resources to perform predefined functions upon detection of specific input and then process data before passing it on. for example
The accelerometer sensor in the mobile phones detects the orientation of the phone. The Gyroscope sensors, tracks rotation or twist of your hand and add to the information supplied by the accelerometer.
14. SMART CITIES :
The smart city makes use of computer and communication technology along with IoT to manage and distribute resources efficiently. The buildings of Smart City uses sensors to detect earthquake tremors and then warn nearby buildings so that they can prepare themselves accordingly. The bridge of Smart City uses wireless sensors to detect any loose bolt, cable or crack. It alerts concerned authorities through SMS.
15. CLOUD COMPUTING :
Cloud computing is an emerging trend in the field of information technology, where computer-based services are delivered over the Internet or the cloud, and it is accessible to the user from anywhere using any device. The services comprise software, hardware (servers), databases, storage, etc. These resources are provided by companies called cloud service providers and usually charge on a pay per use basis, like the way we pay for electricity usage.
16. CLOUD SERVICES :
A “service” corresponds to any facility provided by the cloud. There are three standard models to categorise different computing services. These are
a. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) : The IaaS providers can offer different kinds of computing infrastructure, such as servers, virtual machines (VM), storage and backup facility, network components, operating systems or any other hardware or software.
b. Platform as a Service (PaaS) : PaaS provides a platform or environment to develop, test, and deliver software applications. To run Python and MySQL online, we can avail a pre-configured Apache server from cloud having MySQL and Python pre-installed. In PaaS, the user has complete control over the deployed application and its configuration.
c. Software as a Service (SaaS) : SaaS provides on-demand access to application software, usually requiring a licensing or subscription by the user. While using Google Doc, Microsoft Office 365, Drop Box, etc., to edit a document online, we use SaaS from cloud.
17. GRID COMPUTING :
A grid is a computer network of geographically dispersed and heterogeneous computational resources. Unlike cloud, whose primary focus is to provide services, a grid is more application specific and creates a sense of a virtual supercomputer with an enormous processing power and storage. Grid can be of two types—
1. Data grid : used to manage large and distributed data having required multi-user access
2. CPU or Processor grid : where processing is moved from one PC to another as needed or a large task is divided into subtasks
17. BLOCK CHAINS :
The blockchain technology works on the concept of decentralised and shared database where each computer has a copy of the database. A block can be thought as a secured chunk of data or valid transaction. Each block has some data called its header, which is visible to every other node, while only the owner has access to the private data of the block. Such blocks form a chain called blockchain
Class 11 : NCERT Solutions
MCQ of Computer Science Chapter Wise
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