Best Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

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Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes
Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Digital footprint, net and communication etiquettes, data protection, intellectual property rights (IPR), plagiarism, licensing and copyright, free and open source software (FOSS), cybercrime and cyber laws, hacking, phishing, cyber bullying, overview of Indian IT Act.

E-waste: hazards and management.

Awareness about health concerns related to the usage of technology.

Digital Footprints :

Whenever we surf the Internet using smartphones, tablets, computers, etc., we leave a trail of data reflecting the activities performed by us online is called our digital footprint.

There are two kinds of digital footprints.

  1. Active digital footprints: The digital data trail we leave online intentionally. for example emails we write, or posts we make on different websites.
  2. Passive digital footprints: The digital data trail we leave online unintentionally. for example when we visit a website, use a mobile App, browse Internet, etc.

NOTE : All our online activities leave a data trace on the Internet . Therefore, we need to be more cautious while being online!


Anyone who uses digital technology along with Internet is a digital citizen or a netizen. A responsible netizen must abide by net etiquettes, communication etiquettes and social media etiquettes.

Net Etiquettes:

When we are online, we should exhibit proper manners and etiquettes called Net etiquette. One should be ethical, respectful and responsible while surfing the Internet.

  1. Be Ethical
    • No copyright violation: we should not use copyrighted materials without the permission of the creator or owner
    • Share the expertise: it is good to share information and knowledge on Internet so that others can access it.
  2. Be Respectful
    • Respect privacy: We should not share images, documents, files etc., of any one netizen with other netizen without each others’ consent.
    • Respect diversity: We should respect the diversity of the people in terms of knowledge, experience, culture and other aspects.
  3. Be Responsible
    • Avoid cyber bullying: Repeated posting of rumours, giving threats online, posting the victim’s personal information, sexual harassment is termed as cyber bullying.
    • Don’t feed the troll: an Internet troll is a person who deliberately sows discord on the Internet by starting quarrels, by posting inflammatory or off topic messages in an online community, just for amusement.
Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes
Net Etiquettes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Communication Etiquettes:

Digital communication includes email, texting, instant messaging, talking on the cell phone, audio or video
conferencing, posting on forums, social networking sites, etc.

For good communication a digital citizen should abide by the communication etiquettes given below

  1. Be Precise:
    • Respect time: We should not waste our time in responding to unnecessary emails or comments and also do not expect immediate response from the recipient.
    • Respect data limits: To save data avoid sending large attachments . Rather send compressed files or link of the files through cloud shared storage like Google Drive, Microsoft OneDrive, Yahoo Dropbox, etc.
  2. Be Polite: Whether the communication is synchronous (happening in real time like chat, audio/video calls) or asynchronous (like email, forum post or comments), we should be polite.
  3. Be Credible: We should be very careful while making a comment, or writing an email or replying on forum post as such acts decide our credibility over a period of time.
Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes
Communication Etiquettes

Social Media Etiquettes:

Social media(Facebook, Google+, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, or YouTube channel) are websites or applications that enable their users to participate in social networking by creating and sharing content with others in the community.

In social media too, there are certain etiquettes we need to follow

  1. Be Secure
    • Choose password wisely
    • Know who you befriend
    • Beware of fake information
  2. Be Reliable
    • Think before upload
Social Media Etiquettes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Date Protection:

Elements of data that can cause substantial harm, embarrassment, inconvenience and unfairness to an individual, if breached or compromised, is called sensitive data. Examples of sensitive data include biometric information, health information, financial information, or other personal documents, images or audios or videos. Privacy of sensitive data can be implemented by encryption, authentication.

In this digital age, data or information protection is mainly about the privacy of data stored digitally.

Intellectual Property Right (IPR):

Intellectual Property refers to the inventions, literary and artistic expressions, designs and symbols, names and logos. The ownership of such concepts lies with the creator, or the holder of the intellectual property. Intellectual Property is legally protected through copyrights, patents, trademarks,etc.

a. Copyright:

Copyright grants legal rights to creators for their original works like writing, photograph, audio recordings, video,
sculptures, architectural works, computer software, and other creative works like literary and artistic work.

Copyright law gives the copyright holder a set of rights that are given below:

  1. Right to copy (reproduce) a work.
  2. Right to create derivative works based upon it.
  3. Right to distribute copies of the work to the public.
  4. Right to publicly display or perform the work.

b. Patent:

A patent is usually granted for inventions. Unlike copyright, the inventor needs to apply (file) for patenting the invention. When a patent is granted, the owner gets an exclusive right to prevent others from using, selling. A patent protects an invention for 20 years, after which it can be freely used.

c. Trademark:

Trademark includes any visual symbol, word, name, design, slogan, label, etc., that distinguishes the brand from other brands. For example, no company other than Nike can use the Nike brand to sell shoes or clothes.


A license is a type of contract or a permission agreement between the creator of an original work permitting
someone to use their work, generally for some price.

Licensing is the legal term used to describe the terms under which people are allowed to use the copyrighted material.

Public Access and Open Source Software:

When authors share their copyrighted works with others under public license, it allows others to use and even
modify the content. Open source licenses help others to contribute to existing work or project without seeking
special individual permission to do so.

The GNU General Public License (GPL) and the Creative Commons (CC) are two popular categories of public licenses

CC licenses are a set of copyright licenses that give the recipients, rights to copy, modify and redistribute the
creative material, but giving the authors, the liberty to decide the conditions of licensing.

GNU GPL is the most widely used free software license which grants the recipients, rights to copy, modify and redistribute the software and that the same rights are preserved in all derivative works.

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Violation of IPR:

Violation of intellectual property right may happen in one of the following ways:

1. Plagiarism:

Presenting someone else’s idea or work as one’s own idea or work is called plagiarism. If we copy some contents from Internet, but do not mention the source or the original creator, then it is considered as an act of plagiarism.

2. Copyright Infringement:

Copyright infringement is when we use other person’s work without obtaining their permission to use or we
have not paid for it, if it is being sold.

3. Trademark Infringement:

Trademark Infringement means unauthorised use of other’s trademark on products and services.

Proprietary Software vs FOSS(Free and Open Source Software):

Free and Open SoftwareProprietary Software
The term “Open-Source” refers to software in which the
source code is available and can be accessed, modified
by anybody
The term “Proprietary Software” refers to
software that is owned by the person who
produced it.
Examples of free software are : Linux, Ubuntu,
Libre Office, Mozilla Firefox etc
Examples of Proprietary Software are Microsoft
Windows, MS Office etc
Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Cyber Crime:

Cyber crime is defined as a crime in which computer is the medium of crime (hacking, phishing, spamming), or the computer is used as a tool to commit crimes (extortion, data breaches, theft).


Hacking is the act of unauthorised access to a computer, computer network or any digital system. Hacking, when done with a positive intent, is called ethical hacking. Such ethical hackers are known as white hat hackers. A non-ethical hacker is the one who tries to gain unauthorised access to computers or networks in order to steal sensitive data with the intent to damage or bring down systems. They are called black hat hackers or crackers

Computer Virus:

A computer virus is some lines of malicious code that can copy itself and can have detrimental effect on the computers, by destroying data or corrupting the system. Similarly, malware is a software designed to specifically gain unauthorised access to computer systems.

Phishing and Fraud Emails:

Phishing is an unlawful activity where fake websites or emails that look original or authentic are presented to
the user to fraudulently collect sensitive and personal details like usernames, passwords, banking and credit card details. The most common phishing method is through email spoofing.

Identity Theft:

A user’s identifiable personal data like demographic details, email ID, banking credentials, passport, PAN, Aadhaar number and various such personal data are stolen and misused by the hacker on behalf of the victim.

There can be many ways in which the criminal takes advantage of an individual’s stolen identity. Given below are a few examples:

  1. Financial identity theft: when the stolen identity is used for financial gain.
  2. Criminal identity theft: criminals use a victim’s stolen identity to avoid detection of their true identity.
  3. Medical identity theft: criminals can seek medical drugs or treatment using a stolen identity.


This is another kind of cyber crime where the attacker gains access to the computer and blocks the user from
accessing, usually by encrypting the data. The attacker blackmails the victim to pay for getting access to the

Some ransomware are sent as email attachments in spam mails. It can also reach our system when we click on a malicious advertisement on the Internet.

Preventing Cyber Crime:

Following points can be considered as safety measures to reduce the risk of cyber crime:

  1. Take regular backup of important data.
  2. Use an updated antivirus software.
  3. Avoid installing pirated software.
  4. Use strong password for web login, and change it periodically.

Indian Information Technology Act (IT Act):

The Government of India’s The Information Technology Act, 2000 (also known as IT Act), amended in 2008, provides guidelines to the user on the processing, storage and transmission of sensitive information.

Cyber Appellate Tribunal has been established to resolve disputes arising from cyber crime, such as tampering with computer source documents, hacking the computer system, using password of another person, publishing sensitive personal data of others without their consent, etc

Digital Signatures:

Digital signatures are the digital equivalent of a paper certificate. Digital signatures work on a unique digital ID issued by an Certificate Authority (CA) to the user. Signing a document digitally means attaching that user’s identify, which can be used to authenticate.

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

E-waste: Hazards and Management:

E-waste or Electronic waste includes electric or electronic gadgets and devices that are no longer in use. Hence, discarded computers, laptops, mobile phones, televisions, tablets, speakers, printers, scanners etc. constitute e-waste when they are near or end of their useful life.

Impact of e-waste on environment:

When e-waste is carelessly thrown or dumped in landfills or dumping grounds, certain elements or metals used in production of electronic products cause air, water and soil pollution.

Impact of e-waste on humans:

If e-waste is not disposed of in proper manner, it can be extremely harmful to humans, plants, animals and the environment as discussed below:

  1. One of the most widely used metals in electronic devices (such as monitors and batteries) is lead. When lead enters the human body it causes lead poisoning which affects the kidneys, brain and central nervous system.
  2. When e-waste such as electronic circuit boards are burnt for disposal, the elements contained in them create a harmful chemical called beryllium which causes skin diseases, allergies and an increased risk of lung cancer.
  3. Some of the electronic devices contain mercury which causes respiratory disorders and brain damage.
  4. The cadmium found in semiconductors and resistors can damage kidneys, liver and bones.

E-waste Management:

E-waste management is the efficient disposal of e-waste. Some of the feasible methods of e-waste management are reduce, reuse and recycle.

1. Reduce: We should try to reduce the generation of e-waste by purchasing the electronic or electrical devices only according to our need

2. Reuse: It is the process of re-using the electronic or electric waste after slight modification. The process of re-selling old electronic goods at lower prices is called refurbishing.

3. Recycle: Recycling is the process of conversion of electronic devices into something that can be used again and again in some or the other manner.

E-waste Management in India:

In India, the Environmental Protection Act, 1986, has been enacted to punish people responsible for causing any form of pollution. According to this act, “Polluter pays Principle”, any one causing any form of pollution will pay for the damage caused.

Device Safety:

  • Regularly clean it to keep the dust off.
  • Wipe monitor’s screen often using the regular microfibre soft cloth (the one used for spectacles).
  • Keep it away from direct heat.
  • Do not eat food or drink over the keyboard.

Impact on Health:

Spending too much time on Internet can be addictive and can have a negative impact on our physical and mental health. These health concerns can be addressed to some extent by taking care of the way we position our postures.

Ergonomics is a branch of science that deals with designing or arranging workplaces including the furniture, equipments and systems so that it becomes safe and comfortable for the user. Ergonomics helps us in reducing the strain on our bodies — including the fatigue and injuries due to prolonged use.

1. Digital footprint is the trail of data we leave behind when we visit any website (or use any online application or portal) to fill-in data or perform any transaction.

2. A user of digital technology needs to follow certain etiquettes like net-etiquettes, communication etiquettes
and social media-etiquettes.

3. Net-etiquette includes avoiding copyright violations, respecting privacy and diversity of users, and avoiding cyber bullies and cyber trolls, besides sharing of expertise.

4. Communication-etiquette requires us to be precise and polite in our conversation so that we remain
credible through our remarks and comments.

5. While using social media, one needs to take care of security through password, be aware of fake information and be careful while befriending unknowns. Care must be taken while sharing anything on social media as it may create havoc if being mishandled, particularly our personal, sensitive information.

6. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) help in data protection through copyrights, patents and trademarks. There are both ethical and legal aspects of violating IPR. A good digital citizen should avoid plagiarism, copyright infringement and trademark infringement.

7. Certain software are made available for free public access. Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) allow users to not only access but also to modify (or improve) them.

8. Cyber crimes include various criminal activities carried out to steal data or to break down important services. These include hacking, spreading viruses or malware, sending phishing or fraudulent emails, ransomware, etc.

9. Excessive usage of digital devices has a negative impact on our physical as well as psychological well-being. Ergonomic positioning of devices as well as our posture are important.

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

1. Functions in Python

2. Flow of Control (Loop and Conditional statement)

3. 140+ MCQ on Introduction to Python

4. 120 MCQ on String in Python

5. 100+ MCQ on List in Python

6. 50+ MCQ on Tuple in Python

7. 100+ MCQ on Flow of Control in Python

8. 60+ MCQ on Dictionary in Python

Important Links

100 Practice Questions on Python Fundamentals

120+ MySQL Practice Questions

90+ Practice Questions on List

50+ Output based Practice Questions

100 Practice Questions on String

70 Practice Questions on Loops

70 Practice Questions on if-else

Disclaimer : I tried to give you the correct notes of ”Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes , but if you feel that there is/are mistakes in the Notes of Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes You can directly contact me at The above Notes are created from NCERT Book.

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

Societal Impact Class 12 IP Notes

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